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Roles of astrocytic sonic hedgehog production and its signal for regulation of the blood-brain barrier permeability
Roles of astrocytic sonic hedgehog production and its signal for regulation of the blood-brain barrier permeability
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a biological and functional barrier between the peripheral vascular system and the centra...
A circadian clock regulates the blood-brain barrier across phylogeny
A circadian clock regulates the blood-brain barrier across phylogeny
Available online 17 May 2024Author links open overlay panel, AbstractAs the central regulatory system of an organism, the ...
Structural changes in hemoglobin and glycation
Structural changes in hemoglobin and glycation
Hemoglobin (Hb) is a globular protein from the group of hemeproteins and represents most of the protein content of red blo...
Nanoparticles in prevention of protein glycation
Nanoparticles in prevention of protein glycation
Glycation refers to a chemical reaction where sugar molecules (glucose or fructose) bind to proteins or fats or nucleic ac...
Vitamin B6 and diabetes and its role in counteracting advanced glycation end products
Vitamin B6 and diabetes and its role in counteracting advanced glycation end products
Naturally occurring forms of vitamin B6 include six interconvertible water-soluble compounds: pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (...
Beta-caryophyllene in psychiatric and neurological diseases: Role of blood-brain barrier
Beta-caryophyllene in psychiatric and neurological diseases: Role of blood-brain barrier
Available online 8 May 2024Author links open overlay panel, AbstractBeta-caryophyllene is an abundant terpene in cannabis,...
Gene therapy targeting the blood-brain barrier
Gene therapy targeting the blood-brain barrier
Available online 12 April 2024Author links open overlay panel, , AbstractEndothelial cells are the building blocks of vess...
Advanced glycation end products and insulin resistance in diabetic nephropathy
Advanced glycation end products and insulin resistance in diabetic nephropathy
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can be explained as a group of multiple abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia either due to ...
Sleep loss impairs blood-brain barrier function: Cellular and molecular mechanisms
Sleep loss impairs blood-brain barrier function: Cellular and molecular mechanisms
Available online 8 April 2024Author links open overlay panel, , AbstractSleep is a physiological process that preserves th...
Breath of fresh air: Investigating the link between AGEs, sRAGE, and lung diseases
Breath of fresh air: Investigating the link between AGEs, sRAGE, and lung diseases
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), first described by Louis-Camille Maillard in 1912, are the end products of irrever...
Antioxidant and antibrowning properties of Maillard reaction products in food and biological systems
Antioxidant and antibrowning properties of Maillard reaction products in food and biological systems
Oxidative damage refers to the harmful effects caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems, which can da...
Attenuation of albumin glycation and oxidative stress by minerals and vitamins: An in vitro perspective of dual-purpose therapy
Attenuation of albumin glycation and oxidative stress by minerals and vitamins: An in vitro perspective of dual-purpose therapy
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that causes persistently elevated blood sugar levels over a prolonged perio...
Chapter One - MicroRNA regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid and androgen biosynthesis
Chapter One - MicroRNA regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid and androgen biosynthesis
Steroid hormones are derived from a common precursor molecule, cholesterol, and regulate a wide range of physiologic funct...
Chapter Two - Serotonin and the serotonin transporter in the adrenal gland
Chapter Two - Serotonin and the serotonin transporter in the adrenal gland
Serotonin stimulation of corticosteroid secretion is mediated by 5-HT receptors, requires cAMP production, PKA activation,...
Chapter Three - Regulation of lipid droplets and cholesterol metabolism in adrenal cortical cells
Chapter Three - Regulation of lipid droplets and cholesterol metabolism in adrenal cortical cells
The adrenal gland is composed of two distinctly different endocrine moieties. The interior medulla consists of neuroendocr...
Chapter Four - MicroRNAs in aldosterone production and action
Chapter Four - MicroRNAs in aldosterone production and action
Aldosterone is a cardiovascular hormone with a key role in blood pressure regulation, among other processes, mediated thro...
Chapter Five - Genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Impact on cancer risk, prognosis, and therapeutic directions
Chapter Five - Genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Impact on cancer risk, prognosis, and therapeutic directions
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure...
Chapter Six - Adaptive remodeling of the stimulus-secretion coupling: Lessons from the ‘stressed’ adrenal medulla
Chapter Six - Adaptive remodeling of the stimulus-secretion coupling: Lessons from the ‘stressed’ adrenal medulla
Our organism is daily subjected to environmental changes that challenge body homeostasis. These changes are often perceive...
Chapter Seven - Current insight into the transient X-zone in the adrenal gland cortex
Chapter Seven - Current insight into the transient X-zone in the adrenal gland cortex
Many marker genes have been identified in the adrenal gland’s inner cortex (Table 2). The two commonly used marker genes f...
Chapter Eight - Aging of the adrenal gland and its impact on the stress response
Chapter Eight - Aging of the adrenal gland and its impact on the stress response
Two theories of aging, not mutually exclusive, have been projected. The first is a concept whereby a cell is programmed to...
Chapter Nine - 3D organization of the rat adrenal medulla
Chapter Nine - 3D organization of the rat adrenal medulla
The adrenal medulla is an important part of the sympathoadrenal system and plays a key role in its adaptation to stress. T...
Chapter Ten - Angiotensin II-dependent aldosterone production in the adrenal cortex
Chapter Ten - Angiotensin II-dependent aldosterone production in the adrenal cortex
The adrenal cortex is responsible for adrenal steroid production and is anatomically divided into three distinct zones pro...
Chapter Eleven - A cholesterol-centric outlook on steroidogenesis
Chapter Eleven - A cholesterol-centric outlook on steroidogenesis
Cholesterol, an essential and versatile lipid, is the precursor substrate for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, and a ...
Chapter Twelve - Functional interaction of Clock genes and bone morphogenetic proteins in the adrenal cortex
Chapter Twelve - Functional interaction of Clock genes and bone morphogenetic proteins in the adrenal cortex
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which mediates the adaptive responses to stressors, is essential for the su...
Chapter Thirteen - Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, septic adrenal apoplexy
Chapter Thirteen - Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, septic adrenal apoplexy
Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is a clinical conundrum conventionally described as a combination of adrenal hemorr...
Insulin and the blood–brain barrier
Insulin and the blood–brain barrier
The brain is now recognized as an insulin-sensitive organ. The brain not only responds to circulating insulin but also tak...
The changes in adrenal developmental programming and homeostasis in offspring induced by glucocorticoids exposure during pregnancy
The changes in adrenal developmental programming and homeostasis in offspring induced by glucocorticoids exposure during pregnancy
In the past two decades, “developmental origin of health and disease” has gradually become a research hotspot. Fetal progr...
Non-enzymatic glycation and diabetic kidney disease
Non-enzymatic glycation and diabetic kidney disease
Available online 6 February 2024Author links open overlay panel, , , AbstractChronic diabetes leads to various complicatio...
Aging of the adrenal gland and its impact on the stress response
Aging of the adrenal gland and its impact on the stress response
Two theories of aging, not mutually exclusive, have been projected. The first is a concept whereby a cell is programmed to...