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Physiology of the tongue with emphasis on taste transduction
Physiology of the tongue with emphasis on taste transduction
The tongue is a complex multifunctional organ that interacts and senses both interoceptively and exteroceptively. Although...
Pathophysiology and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension: Role of Membrane Receptors, Ion Channels and Ca2+ Signaling
Pathophysiology and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension: Role of Membrane Receptors, Ion Channels and Ca2+ Signaling
Abstract The pulmonary circulation is a low-resistance, low-pressure and high-compliance system that allows the lungs to r...
The Elusive Cephalic Phase Insulin Response: Triggers, Mechanisms, and Functions
The Elusive Cephalic Phase Insulin Response: Triggers, Mechanisms, and Functions
The cephalic phase insulin response (CPIR) is classically defined as a head receptor-induced early release of insulin duri...
Molecular Responses to Acute Exercise and Their Relevance for Adaptations in Skeletal Muscle to Exercise Training
Molecular Responses to Acute Exercise and Their Relevance for Adaptations in Skeletal Muscle to Exercise Training
Repeated, episodic bouts of skeletal muscle contraction undertaken frequently as structured exercise training is a potent ...
Windows into stress: A glimpse at emerging roles for CRHPVN neurons
Windows into stress: A glimpse at emerging roles for CRHPVN neurons
The corticotropin releasing hormone cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (CRHPVN) control the slow end...
Chloride transporters controlling neuronal excitability
Chloride transporters controlling neuronal excitability
Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability, which is the foundation of nervous system fu...
Cellular senescence and cardiovascular diseases: moving to the “heart” of the problem
Cellular senescence and cardiovascular diseases: moving to the “heart” of the problem
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the prime cause of global mortality, with an immense impact on patient quality o...
A Multisystem Physiological Perspective of Human Frailty and Its Modulation by Physical Activity
A Multisystem Physiological Perspective of Human Frailty and Its Modulation by Physical Activity
"Frailty" is a term used to refer to a state characterised by enhanced vulnerability to, and impaired recovery f...
Evolution of the diagnostic value of “the sugar of the blood”: hitting the sweet spot to identify alterations in glucose dynamics
Evolution of the diagnostic value of “the sugar of the blood”: hitting the sweet spot to identify alterations in glucose dynamics
In this paper, we provide an overview of the evolution of the definition of hyperglycemia during the past century and the ...
Contributions of acquired immunity to the development of COPD in humans and animal models
Contributions of acquired immunity to the development of COPD in humans and animal models
The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the undisputed role of innate immune cells in this...
The choroid plexus: a missing link in our understanding of brain development and function
The choroid plexus: a missing link in our understanding of brain development and function
Studies of the choroid plexuses lag behind those of, the more widely known, blood brain barrier in spite of a much longer ...
A Systematic Review of the Biological Mediators of Fat-Taste and Smell
A Systematic Review of the Biological Mediators of Fat-Taste and Smell
Taste and smell play a key role in our ability to perceive foods. Overconsumption of highly palatable energy-dense foods c...
Cellular senescence and cardiovascular diseases: moving to the "heart" of the problem
Cellular senescence and cardiovascular diseases: moving to the "heart" of the problem
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the prime cause of global mortality with an immense impact on patient quality of...
Clonal Hematopoiesis, Somatic Mosaicism, and Age-Associated Disease
Clonal Hematopoiesis, Somatic Mosaicism, and Age-Associated Disease
Somatic mosaicism - the occurrence of multiple genetically distinct cell clones within the same tissue - is an evitable co...
Systematic Reviews for Basic Scientists: A Different Beast
Systematic Reviews for Basic Scientists: A Different Beast
* Corresponding Author; email: [email protected]1Departments of Medicine, of Epidemiology and Population Health, of Biomed...
Adaptation in auditory processing
Adaptation in auditory processing
Adaptation is an essential feature of auditory neurons, which reduces their responses to unchanging and recurring sounds a...
Ion channels and channelopathies in glomeruli
Ion channels and channelopathies in glomeruli
An essential step in renal function entails the formation of an ultrafiltrate that is delivered to the renal tubules for s...
Determinants, Maintenance and Function of Organellar pH
Determinants, Maintenance and Function of Organellar pH
The protonation state of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules dictates their charge, conformation and functional...
Trained immunity: adaptation within innate immune mechanisms
Trained immunity: adaptation within innate immune mechanisms
The mechanisms underlying innate immune memory have been extensively explored in the last decades but are in fact largely ...
The physiological functions of human peroxisomes
The physiological functions of human peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles which play a central role in human physiology by catalyzing a range of unique metab...
Neutrophil extracellular traps in the pathology of cancer and other inflammatory diseases
Neutrophil extracellular traps in the pathology of cancer and other inflammatory diseases
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, first described in 2004 as a previously unknown strategy of neutrophils to ...
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies: from genetic heterogeneity to phenotypic continuum
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies: from genetic heterogeneity to phenotypic continuum
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by early-onset, often se...
The Ebb and Flow of Cardiac Lymphatics: A Tidal Wave of New Discoveries
The Ebb and Flow of Cardiac Lymphatics: A Tidal Wave of New Discoveries
The heart is imbued with a vast lymphatic network which is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking. ...
Protease-Activated Receptors in Health and Disease
Protease-Activated Receptors in Health and Disease
Although generally regarded as degradatory enzymes, certain proteases are also signaling molecules that specifically contr...
Complex Physiology and Clinical Implications of Time-restricted Eating
Complex Physiology and Clinical Implications of Time-restricted Eating
Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a dietary intervention that limits food consumption to a specific time window each day. Th...
Albumin uptake and processing by the proximal tubule: physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications
Albumin uptake and processing by the proximal tubule: physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications
For nearly 50 years the proximal tubule (PT) has been known to reabsorb, process, and either catabolize or transcytose alb...
Cortical-Subcortical Interactions in Goal-directed Behavior
Cortical-Subcortical Interactions in Goal-directed Behavior
Flexibly selecting appropriate actions in response to complex, ever-changing environments requires both cortical and subco...
Lymphatic vessels in cancer
Lymphatic vessels in cancer
The lymphatic system, composed of initial and collecting lymphatic vessels as well as lymph nodes that are present in almo...
Human temperature regulation under heat stress in health, disease, and injury
Human temperature regulation under heat stress in health, disease, and injury
The human body constantly exchanges heat with the environment. Temperature regulation is a homeostatic feedback control sy...
Wonder of wonders, miracle of miracles: the unprecedented speed of COVID-19 science
Wonder of wonders, miracle of miracles: the unprecedented speed of COVID-19 science
A Tale of Two Epidemics: HIV and SARS - Physiological Reviews Editor-in-Chief Dr. Sadis Matalon speaks with Michael...